1.Blood tests: -A beta-amyloid test, which measures the levels of beta-amyloid in the brain. A tau protein test, which measures the levels of tau protein in the brain
·One test measures levels of amyloid beta, which is a protein that builds up in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
·Another test measures levels of tau, which is a protein that also builds up in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Finally, there is a test that measures levels of the protein P-tau, which is a marker for neurodegeneration.
2. Genetic tests: There are no approved predictive genetic tests for the most common form of Alzheimer’s disease. However, ApoE genotyping has been developed.
·ApoE genotyping is a genetic test that looks for specific variations in the ApoE gene. These variations have been linked to an increased risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease.
·The test is typically ordered for people with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease or for those who have already been diagnosed with the condition. It can help determine if a person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s is higher than average and if they may benefit from early treatment or preventive measures.
·ApoE genotyping is a simple blood test that can be done in a doctor’s office or laboratory. Results are typically available within a few days.
3. Brain scans: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET)
·These tests take pictures of the inside of your body. They can show how well your organs are working and whether there are any problems with them.
·CT scans use X-rays to take pictures of your brain. MRI scans use strong magnets and radio waves to take pictures of your brain. PET scans use radioactive sugar to show how well your brain cells are working.
·CT: A CT scan uses special x-ray equipment to make detailed pictures, or slices, of the brain. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.
·MRI: An MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make detailed pictures of the brain and spinal cord.
·PET: PET scans use a special camera and a small amount of a radioactive substance, such as glucose, to show how well the brain is working.
4. Memory and thinking tests: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
·The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a commonly used cognitive test that can be used to help diagnose patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The MMSE assesses a variety of cognitive domains, including memory, language, visuospatial skills, and executive functioning. A patient’s score on the MMSE can help to indicate the severity of their cognitive impairment and can be used to track changes in cognitive function over time.